Genetic engineering involves the transfer of genes from one organism to usually an unrelated species. Section a of the module introduces molecular and structural organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, while section b includes a detailed study of classical transmission of genetic information and provides an introduction to the principles of genetics. Each lesson has an interactive powerpoint, a pupil worksheets linked to the work in the powerpoint and a linked past paper question with mark scheme the publisher original of the worksheet. The key ideas that you need to understand are as follows. Gcse core science revision materials for cloning and genetic engineering revision materials to support students prepare for the gcse core science examinations. Some that have taken up the recombinant plasmid with the gene we want these. Gcse science biology 91 genetic engineering find my revision. Sep 22, 2017 how bacteria can be genetically engineered to produce a human protein. It follows the oxford book chapter 14 in its chronology. This is a small, extrachromosomal, circular piece of dna often found in bacteria in addition to their functional dna. Genetic engineering, sometimes called genetic modification, is the process of altering the dna in an organisms genome this may mean changing one base pair at or cg, deleting a whole region of dna, or introducing an additional copy of a gene.
Genetic engineering is a process that modifies the genome of an organism to introduce desirable characteristics. Various kinds of genetic modification are possible. Genetic engineering is a subdiscipline of biotechnology. It was discovered by sir edward sharpey schafer 1916 while studying islets of langerhans. Please, like, subscribe or leave comments and feedback and if you. Genetic engineering can be used to create organisms that produce large amounts of useful substances for example, bacteria can be engineered to produce human insulin. This is a technology that involves the manipulation of the genotype of an organism to get the desired trait.
Bacterial cells can be genetically modified so that they have the gene for producing human insulin. This gcse biology quiz takes a look at the genetic engineering of plants, animals and bacteria, and how we use genetic engineering in the fields of farming and medicine. Genetic engineering an overview sciencedirect topics. Bacteria is genetically modified to produce useful human proteins such as human growth hormone and human insulin. Explain how the hormone insulin controls blood glucose concentration.
Genetic engineering has been used to produce a type of. A vector is a carrier dna molecule into which the desired gene can be inserted most commonly, this vector is a plasmid. Genetics this is my video about ocr a2 biology f215 on genetics. Genetic engineering, the artificial manipulation, modification, and recombination of dna or other nucleic acid molecules in order to modify an organism or population of organisms. Edexcel igcse biology genetic modification and cloning final. Production of insulin throuhg genetic engineering youtube.
Engineering organisms that can synthesise useful products e. Gcse science biology 91 genetic engineering youtube. For example, scientists have inserted the gene for human insulin into bacterial plasmid dna. Aug 24, 2011 15 genetic engineering does not always have to involve gene transfer between unrelated organisms genes in a single organism can be modified to improve their characteristics or their products a gene for the production of. The bacterial cell reproduces, making more cells which produce the protein. Definition of genetic engineering iupac definition. Alfred, the science app, mishears her suggestion and looks for information on glowinthedark cats. Students are expected to understand how genetic engineering can be used to. Diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.
Genetic engineering is also called genetic modification or gm. Current uses of genetic engineering diabetes is a disorder in which the bodys blood glucose levels remain too low or too high. The control of all the normal activities of a bacterium depends upon its single chromosome and small rings of genes called plasmids. It covers these specific objectives from the syllabus 5. Kannan 2003 in genetic engineering, one adds, substracts, multiplies, or divides a gene, which in turn, changes the levels of a protein which may in turn changes the levels of carbohydrates and lipids. It involves modifying the genome of an organism by introducing a gene from another organism to result in a desired characteristic. Start studying gcse biology genetic modification and evolution. New dna is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic. In therapeutic cloning an embryo is produced with the same genes as. Genetic engineering cie igcse biology revision notes. This video is for edexcel igcse biology 91 but is relevant for many gcse biology courses. Set the task as a book or computer based research task. Its based on the biology section of aqas syllabus a. Gcse biology genetic engineering insulin a quick tutorial, showing how we use.
Due to an increase in the number of diabetics, more insulin is required than ever before. Genetic engineering human insulin teaching resources. The location of the section of dna containing the gene for making the human protein insulin must be. We are covering the topic of biotechnology and genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is the alteration of an organisms genotype using recombinant dna technology to modify an organisms dna to achieve desirable traits. Test yourself with our 3 step revision exam style questions, test and revision summary. Until 1982, insulin from oxen and pigs was used to treat the condition. It also involves the transfer of gene coding for the desired trait from one organism to another. Genetic engineering genetic engineering national 5 biology. The advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering show that the results can be generally positive, but there must be controls in place to manage the negative when it occurs. A type of enzyme used in genetic engineering for cutting dna into defined pieces based on the sequence of bases in the dna. Scientists can use genetic engineering to alter the basic genetic material of an organism, by inserting genes functional agents of heredity from one organism into the genetic code for another.
Engineering insulin flashcards in a level and ib biology. This causes the bacterial cell to make the human protein. In type 2 diabetes the body cells no longer respond to insulin produced. A presentation on biotechnology with all the required details for the edexcel gcse biology specification. The first figure or page number always refers to the gcse biology book. Written by expert teachers for the cie 06100970 igcse biology syllabus. But, as with most new technology, it also carries potential risks. Both processes often make use of bacteria because of their ability to make complex molecules. May, 20 1 minute quick draw revision on genetic engineering of insulin. For the particular model they work on, they isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacterias gene sequence plasmid dna for production of the protein insulin.
Genetic engineering gcserevision, biology, geneticsand. Genetic engineering involves the extraction of a gene from one living organism and inserting it into another organism, so that the receiving organism can express the product of the gene. Gcse biology genetic engineering insulin a quick tutorial, showing how we use restriction enzymes to cut out a desired gene from one organism, and insert it into the. The insertion of human genes into bacteria to produce human insulin. Cell factories for insulin production pubmed central pmc. Genetic engineering involves the manipulation or alteration of an organisms genes using biotechnology. Pupils will then be given a diagram of the genetic engineering process, specifically using the example of the human gene for insulin being inserted into a bacterium. Download genetic engineering by p s verma pdf online. Gcse biology genetic engineering insulin a quick tutorial, showing how we use restriction enzymes to cut out a desired gene from one organism, and insert it into.
Gcse genetic engineering selective breeding revision. The stages of this method of genetic engineering are. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. Genetic engineering is a subject taught at the undergraduate level to almost all students of the biological sciences. Some from bacteria with a plasmid but without the gene. The new plasmid with the human insulin gene is put back into the bacterium. Large amounts of insulin can be manufactured from genetically modified bacteria that are grown in a fermenter. Microorganisms and genetic modification appendix glossary index iv vi vii 02 38 4 186 226 280 303 306 311 uncorrected proof. Mar 23, 2014 a quick tutorial, showing how we use restriction enzymes to cut out a desired gene from one organism, and insert it into the plasmid of a bacterium. Alfred explains the procedures involved in genetic engineering.
The development in the field of genetic engineering allowed the production of insulin in e. Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. People with diabetes therefore have to inject insulin to control their blood sugar levels. Genetic modification is a faster and more efficient way of getting the same results as selective. All text is lifted from and of edexcel igcse biology student book chapter 22 and the accompanying revision guide. Sticky ends where the cut ends of a dna molecule have a short region of exposed bases overhangs that makes forming recombinant dna using ligase more efficient. Human insulin production by genetic engineering pass my exams.
Further resources are available from achieveinscience and scuttscience. The addition of foreign dna in the form of recombinant dna vectors generated by molecular cloning is the most common method of genetic engineering. Powerpoint genetic engineering linkedin slideshare. Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organisms genes using biotechnology. Mankind has been genetically engineering organisms for thousands of years. Human insulin production by genetic engineering pass my. Genetic engineering is a very young discipline, and is only possible due to the development of techniques from the 1960s onwards.
As these modified bacteria grow, they produce human insulin. Genetic engineering can change specific traits, which could create human outcomes that are ethically questionable or easily abused. But going back to this idea of genetic engineering and recombinant dna, other things that you could do is you could, lets say that we need to produce insulin for diabetics. Pearson edexcel level 1level 2 gcse 9 1 in biology 1bi0. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The process for genetic engineering begins the same for any organism being modified see figure 3 for an example of this procedure.
The dna from two different organisms combined that results from genetic modification is known as. They learn what role enzymes, dna and genes play in the modification of organisms. Section of dna containing required gene from human chromosome is identified. Human insulin production by genetic engineering pass my exams, 2018 your bibliography. Introduction to genetic engineering and its applications. Introduction to genetic engineering video khan academy.
Insulin is needed by the body to allow glucose to be taken up into the cells for use as fuel. Edexcel international gcse 91 biology student book philip bradfield, steve potter ebook uncorrected included proof, all content subject to. The ability to engineer and precisely edit the genomes of. Describe the stages involved in producing insulin by genetic engineering. Gcse biology specification specification for first. Topic 20 biotechnology and genetic engineering cie biology igcse. Lhs cell biology unit summary notes genetic engineering human genes can be inserted into a bacterial cell plasmid. Free biology revision notes on the topic genetic engineering. Genetic engineering and biotechnology linkedin slideshare. Revise what youve learned by playing this gcse science quiz for year 10 and year 11 pupils. Youll see that our gcse biology, along with chemistry and physics, is a clear straightforward. A basic technique used is the genetic engineering of bacteria. Genetic engineering variation aqa gcse biology single. Potential benefits and risks of genetic engineering.
Gmo insulin biology bibliographies cite this for me. The genetic engineering of insulin in the 1970s, scientists developed a way to produce human insulin, without using humans or animals. How bacteria can be genetically engineered to produce a human. The insertion of genes into crop plants to confer resistance to herbicides and insect pests. Topic 4 natural selection and genetic modification. Watson and crick have made these techniques possible from our greater understanding of dna and how it functions following the discovery of its structure in 1953.
This process can be used to make insulin for treatment of diabetes. Well, maybe you can take a bacteria cell, and insert into the bacteria cell the gene that helps produce for insulin. This expanded, second edition still offers a concise and affordable technical introduction to the subject, but now covers all of the major modern applications of gene technology, from cloning to the creation of genetically modified animals and plants. Genetic engineering back to top genetic engineering, also known as recombinant dna technology, means altering the genes in a living organism to produce a genetically modified organism gmo with a new genotype. Lesson plan for the ocr specification for human insulin. The genetically modified gm bacteria can then make human insulin, which is used by people with diabetes. Graded task sheet on genetic engineering teaching resources.
An introduction to genetic engineering studies in biology. Gcse core science revision materials for cloning and. Insulin, vaccines and growth hormone are examples of proteins made using genetic engineering and are very important drugs used in humans. A quick tutorial, showing how we use restriction enzymes to cut out a desired gene from one organism, and insert it into the plasmid of a bacterium. Oct 02, 2014 since the early 1920s, diabetic patients were treated with insulin, which was purified from bovine or porcine pancreas. Pupils will need to copy the diagram into their books and choose the correct statements, from a jumbled list, to go with the correct steps. The insulin gene is expressed as it replicates with the bgalactosidase in the cell undergoing mitosis the protein which is formed, consists partly of b. Genetic engineering is a process of taking a gene from one species and putting it into. She teaches life and chemical science courses at college, high school, and middle school levels in ma. Biotechnology state that biotechnology is the industrial use of living organisms or parts of living organisms to produce food, drugs or other products biotechnology the industrial use of living organisms or parts of living organisms to produce food, drugs or other products. Selective breeding has created all the different breeds of dogs for example. Recombinant dna technology in the synthesis of human insulin requires millions of copies of the bacteriawhose plasmid has been combined with the insulin gene in order to yield insulin. This is lesson 4 of a set of 7 lessons that cover 4.889 1500 154 687 1038 1014 973 1005 4 1330 511 919 1034 1151 565 960 329 524 959 545 119 792 511 1261 1365 80 1499 1043 155 1402 1049 1149 1173 1177 319 1461 1481 1090