The advantage of the induction furnace is a clean, energyefficient and wellcontrollable melting process. The heavy and light scrap in the large basket is preheated with the help of exhaust gas. Knifegate valves should never be used in a restrictive role ie half open as the base of the knifegate will wear rapidly and not seal properly when closed. Chemistry elements lying at top of reactivity series are more reactive than elements lying below them in series. Blast furnace and process description chemical engineering. May 25, 2020 a blast furnace is a special type of cylindrical furnace that is primarily used for smelting purposes. The working of electric furnace includes charging the electrode, meltdown period melting the metal and refining. The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone. In a blast furnace, iron ore reacts with hot coke to produce pig iron. Since steel is difficult to manufacture due to its high melting point, normal fuels and furnaces were insufficient and the open hearth furnace was developed to overcome this difficulty. The period of the blast furnace operation is limited by the life.
Many countries that cannot make iron by the traditional blast furnace route but have sufficient supplies of scrap have developing steel industries based on the eaf process. Paper presents the results from the study of the effect of materials. The charge introduced in the cupola consists of pig iron, scrap, casting rejection, coke, and flux. Sintering or pelletising improves the blast furnace operation and reduces energy consumption. The electric arc furnace working principle is based on the heat generated by an electric arc. Working volume it is the inner volume of the blast furnace between a plane through the centerline of the tuyeres and the stockline level. After mining, various kinds of iron ores are brought to the blast furnace which is the starting process for refining iron ores or mined ores and for the production of pig iron. The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick.
The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air. A typical blast furnace along with its various parts is shown in fig. The principle is simply a knife or gate which is dropped in front of the flow. Blast furnace busted very dangerous above 45mtr height. What is the working principle of an electric arc furnace. Blast furnace is a counter current heat and mass exchanger in which reduction and smelting of metallic mineral takes place. Theory and, principles of blast furnace ironmaking. Ppt the blast furnace powerpoint presentation free to. Jul 12, 2019 blast furnace and process description. Generation of hot air blast and hot blast stoves ispatguru. The working phenomenon of this blast furnace is very simple. Control of blast furnace operation is often classified as poorly. Pelletizing a pellet plant contains a series of balling drums where the iron ore concentrate is formed into soft pellets, in much the same manner that one rolls a snowball, to make a pellet about the size of a marble between 14 and 12.
Feb 14, 2018 blast furnace,street fighter x tekken,str xp per hour,minecraft xbox,slag xrd,strength xp per hour,exp chart,exp guide,xp per hour osrs,xp calc,xp rates,water cooling system, working and. The sequence of making steel in an electric arc furnace. A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper. These factors interact to determine the flow and distribution of. Feature 1 kobe steels blast furnace operation technology. These improvements to the processing of scrap steel comprised of larger more efficient and higher capacity furnaces. Blast furnaces produce pig iron from iron ore by the reducing action of carbon supplied as coke at a high temperature in the presence of a fluxing agent such as limestone. In steelmaking, this process, now largely obsolete, is called the openhearth.
The iron ore concentrate is now mixed and ready for the pelletizing process. Apr 05, 2016 a blast furnace also represents a huge overhead cost because, once fired up, it typically runs for six to 10 years, giving an operator little flexibility. How a blast furnace works the purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called hot metal. Pdf blast furnace operation with 100% extruded briquettes. Competition in industry drives higher production rates. They are then used to help heat the air blast, required if blast furnace is to reach the high temperatures needed to produce molten iron. In this method, the heat is directly conducted and taken by the charge. The sintering or pelletising process prior to the blast furnace operation is added to allow blending of iron ores and also to control the size of the blast furnace feed.
A blast furnace is a special type of cylindrical furnace that is primarily used for smelting purposes. The raw materials require 6 to 8 hours to descend to the bottom of the furnace where they become the final product of liquid slag and liquid iron. It is used to burn off all the organic material which need temperatures up to 1,800 degrees celsius. Jan 06, 2018 cupola furnace is a melting device used to melt cast iron, niresist iron, and some bronzes and it is used in foundries.
Basically, the blast furnace is a countercurrent heat and oxygen exchanger in which rising combustion gas loses most of its heat on the. High pellets ratio operation forced by burden material restrictions at kobe steel resulted in the development of a center coke charging process based on. By striking the arc between the charge and electrode. To realize an efficient and stable operation, the authors developed an.
How pig iron is converted into iron and steel in blast. Optimizing blast furnace operation to increase efficiency and. This video explains induction furnace introduction, advantages, parameters, eddy current, electromagnetic induction, working principle through animation. The location, shape and extent of each zone is influenced by the properties of the material layers relative thickness, etc. A blast furnace also represents a huge overhead cost because, once fired up, it typically runs for six to 10 years, giving an operator little flexibility. The shape of the cupola is cylindrical and the equipment is arranged in the vertical fitted with doors. Blast furnace sizing considerations for incredible india. Internally the blast furnace is considered to consist of five discrete zones, see fig. Pdf information modeling system for blast furnace control. Apr 18, 2015 the port through which the hot blast air exits from the stove is located on the side of the combustion chamber usually 4 m to 7 m above the burner.
Because the furnace is electrically powered, very high temperatures 1500c can be attained. Pdf practical operation guidance on thermal control of blast. The industrial metals, like iron, pig iron, or copper, can be extracted from their ores. The cupola furnace works on the principle where we generate heat from burning coke and when the temperature of the furnace is above the melting point of the metal then the metal is melt. Electric arc furnace means an extremely hot enclosed space, where heat is produced by means of electrical arcing for melting certain metals such as scrap steel without changing electrochemical properties of the metal. Production of pig iron in a blast furnace 9 scheme of a blast furnace content a blast furnace charge and its treatment a blast furnace charge consists of ore, fluxes and fuel. The furnaces operating on this principle are known as. Refining in induction furnace is not as intensive or effective as in electric arc furnace eaf. Blast furnaces are used continuously and are only shut down when their brick lining needs replacing. Modern furnaces are highly efficient, including cowper stoves to preheat the blast air and employ recovery systems to extract the heat from the hot gases exiting the furnace. Electric arc furnace heating your electrical guide. As the mixture of iron ore, coke and limestone heats, the hot waste gases are collected and cleansed. Forging furnaces use an open fireplace system and most of the heat is transmitted by radiation. Blast furnaces are used to produce pig iron from iron ore for subsequent.
Iron ore, coke and limestone are put into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom. The blast furnace remains an important part of modern iron production. The principle of blast furnace operational technology and. Aug 21, 2008 the industrys leading blast furnace operation technology. How a blast furnace works twinkletwinklelittlestar. The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom. How a blast furnace works introduction the purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called hot metal. Here, electric arc is produced between the electrodes. A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals. A high quality coke should be able to support a smooth descent of the blast furnace burden with. It is lined with refractory firebricks that can withstand temperatures approaching 2000 o c. Coke is the most important raw material fed into the blast furnace in terms of its effect on blast furnace operation and hot metal quality.
Material covering the exact size of the older group cannot be found but from the area covered by the ruins it was approximately 50 ft. Milestones of our blast furnace operation technologies tamura categorized our history of pigiron making. The hot metal is mainly used in the steel melting shop as a raw material and surplus hot metal poured in pig casting machine. The output of iron from blast furnaces is likely to decline in the future because of diminishing. Induction furnace working through animation youtube.
The open bath allows fine feed materials to be fed into the furnace, without risk of blocking the gas emanating from the chemical reactions. Early waterdriven reciprocators for operating blast furnaces were built according. The ore part of a charge consists of iron ores and concentrates, manganese ores and various types of scrap containing iron. Furnaces and refractories fusion dust and slag or by the action of alkalies on fireclay refractories, to form alkalialumina silicates. Blast furnace gas has a high carbon monoxide co content and a low heating value, typical. They are allowed to enter with very precision order so that gas flow and other chemical reactions can be controlled effectively. The forging furnace is used for preheating billets and ingots to attain a forge temperature. All the three ingredients are crushed into small round pieces and mixed and put on a hopper which controls the input. The furnace temperature is maintained at around 1200 to 1250 oc.
The purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called hot metal. Logicalmathematical evaluation model of blastfurnace melting. Jun, 2018 the working of electric furnace includes charging the electrode, meltdown period melting the metal and refining. The port through which the hot blast air exits from the stove is located on the side of the combustion chamber usually 4 m to 7 m above the burner.
Knifegate valves come in all sizes and can have manual hand wheels or pneumatic actuators to raise and lower. By contrast, in a blast furnace, or in a submerged. A muffle furnace is an essential equipment, this is mostly used in research centers. Cupola furnace is a melting device used to melt cast iron, niresist iron, and some bronzes and it is used in foundries. And a piece of good news at the end of the article we have two surprises, one is i give you the pdf of this article and the second is a quiz on cupola furnace for practice. A blast furnace of working volume 350 m3 designed by mecon ltd. The blast furnace is a large steel structure about 30 metres high. Stateoftheart computational fluid dynamics model optimizes fuel rate in. And a piece of good news at the end of the article we have two surprises, one is i give you the pdf of this article and the second is a. Any material expands when heat ed, and contracts when cooled. Blast refers to the combustion air being forced or supplied above atmospheric pressure.
The cupola can be made of any size and the size of the cupola is measured in diameters which range from 1. Preheated air at about o c is blasted into the furnace through nozzles near its. The blast furnace is equipped with a skip hoist with a skip volume of 0. Reverberatory furnace, in copper, tin, and nickel production, a furnace used for smelting or refining in which the fuel is not in direct contact with the ore but heats it by a flame blown over it from another chamber.
Blast furnace operation an overview sciencedirect topics. Jul 17, 2018 this video explains induction furnace introduction, advantages, parameters, eddy current, electromagnetic induction, working principle through animation. Blast furnace, productivity, profile, inner volume, working volume introduction in the steel industry, it is a widely accepted fact that blast furnace productivity rated as e. Between the stove and the hot blast main there is located a water cooled hot blast valve that prevents the high pressure air in the main from entering the stove during the heating process. The blast furnace bf is the most widely used ironmaking. The furnace gets its name from the method that is used to heat it. In a blast furnace, fuel coke, ores, and flux limestone are continuously supplied through.
Glossary of terms used for a blast furnace ispatguru. The word blast gives the idea of combustion air that is supplied or generated violently at the above atmospheric pressure. Aug 04, 2011 the purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called hot metal. Blast furnaces operate on the principle of chemical reduction whereby carbon. The furnaces were 50 feet high and 15 feet wide at the bosh. This principle provides for construction of mathematical models of two levels. So today we discuss the working principle of cupola furnace as well as see the construction, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of cupola furnace. Creating steel from lowgrade iron ore requires a long process of mining, crushing, separating, concentrating, mixing, pelletizing, and shipping. The purpose of a blast furnace is to reduce and convert iron oxides into liquid iron called hot metal. Iron blast furnace is a vertical shaft, which is used to melt the iron ore and to produce hot metal by heat exchange and chemical reaction. Blast furnaces may have the following ancillary facilities. The word blast gives the idea of combustion air that is supplied or.
Introduction blast furnace is the mostly applied facility for the pig. Electric arc furnace design operation and working principle. Pdf blast furnaces are still manually operated in the steel industry. The second world war saw a steep increase in the use of these furnaces leading to the modern electric arc furnace design operation and working principles. The principle of blast furnace operational technology and centralized gas flow by center coke charging dr. The burden charge consisting of iron oxide, flux and coke and it provides through the throat from the top of the furnace.
The evolution of kobe steels blast furnace operations on january 16, 1959, kobe steel, then an openhearth and electric arc furnace steelmaker, fired up the kobe works no. A major advance in bf ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces. Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel. The electric arc heating may be used in the following different ways. In order to smelt iron from its ores, first of all, limestone flux, coke, and iron ore are introduced into the top face of the furnace. Induction furnace capacities range from less than one kilogram to one hundred tonnes, and are used to melt iron and steel, copper, aluminium, and precious metals. Working height of the furnace it is the vertical distance between the centerline of the tuyeres and the stockline. Blast furnace gas is produced during the iron oxide reduction in blast furnace iron making in which iron ore, coke and limestone are heated and melted in a blast furnace and is an indigenous process gas of the steelworks industry pugh et al. A world class blast furnace operation demands the highest quality of raw materials, operation, and operators. A blast furnace is a gigantic, steel stack lined with refractory brick where the concentrated iron ore, coke, and limestone are dumped from the top, and a blast of hot air is blown into the bottom. The typical load is 5 to 6 ton with the furnace operating for 16 to 18 hours daily.
Extraction of iron metallurgy blast furnace and reactions. Apr 28, 2014 how a blast furnace works the purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called hot metal. The blast furnace proper was square in shape and built in the form of a stack which tapered toward the top. The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the. Life of refractory lining is low as compared to eaf.1196 577 692 905 1111 253 1351 171 1175 1112 73 678 490 504 1332 1247 1361 843 874 700 1214 179 885 1059 127 1072 1294 9 389 914 266 509 910 762 1217 515 827 987 1274 1429 736 30